Eventually I will post something other than links to articles on here, but in the meantime here is a link to another memory/cpu related article: 'What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory' by Ulrich Drepper, split into several parts:
Or, if you prefer, in PDF form: http://www.akkadia.org/drepper/cpumemory.pdf
It's written with Linux in mind, but covers basic enough stuff that it can be considered applicable to other OSs.
It's far too long to be covered in anything but the briefest of detail here, I even skipped over some of the sections regarding NUMA. I learned a lot in all that I did read though and have many notes of things to look up as a result. It's a bit of an information overload, even his test methods and results are educational.